A B C
D E F G
H I J K
L M N O
P Q R S T
U V W X Y Z
Alberta Education (1998). School-based
decision making resource guide: Focus on teaching and learning. Alberta.
Andrews, R. L., & Smith, W.E. (1989). Instructional
leadership: How principals make a difference. The Principal as
Instructional Leader. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision
and Curriculum Development.
Archibald, A. & Swinth R.L. (1990). Power
and dependence between the core and rural communities: Participating
with Major Actors in Solving Problems. Journal of Community Development
Society, 21, pp. 70 - 82.
The Association for Supervision and Curriculum
Development (1996, May). Education Update: Paulo Freire Invokes "Dreams
and Utopias." vol. 38, no. 5. [Online]. Available: http://www.ascd.org/pubs/eu/freir.html
Astuto, T.A. & Clark, D.L. (1994). Redirecting
reform: Challenges to popular assumptions about teachers and students.
Phi Delta Kappan, pp. 513 - 520.
Backes,J.S. (1993). The American
Indian high school dropout rate: A Matter of Style? Journal of
American Indian Education, 32, pp. 16 - 29.
Barton, J. & Ward, A. (1995). Making schools
intentionally inviting to Native American students. Contemporary
Education LXVII, 1 , pp. 26 - 29.
Barman, J. & Battiste, M. (1995). First
Nations education in Canada: The circle unfolds. Vancouver, B.C.:
This volume is a collection of research and essays that explore
the various aspects of the schooling of Aboriginal children in adults.
Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experts probe the philosophical basis
of First Nations education. The editors uses the theme of a medicine
wheel, a powerful Aboriginal symbol for reconceptualizing, to discuss
the issues. Included in the volume are important articles: "A
Major Challenge for the Education System: Aboriginal Retention and
Dropout" (Mackay & Myles,1989) and "Non-Native Teachers
Teaching in Native Communities" (Taylor, 1995). This volume
is particularly important because it is one of the few resources
that discusses the Canadian experienceé
Before I started my degree, I chose to read this collection to
prepare me for the type of reading required by the M.Ed. program.
I wanted to reading articles that are relevant to my teaching situation
in a Native school. Although the articles focus on First Nations
education, much of what is discussed connects to issues in Inuit
education. The strength of this volume is found in the authors clariety
in writing about difficult issues and the level of Canadian content
present. Some of the articles need to provide more direction for
the improvement of current schools with multicultural and global
Bellanca, Costa & Fogarty (1992). If
Minds Matter Vol 1. Illinois: SkyLight Publishing.
Borland, M.V. & Howsen, R.M. (1998). Effect
of student attendance on performance: comment on Lamdin. Journal
of Educational Research, 91, pp 195 - 197.
Bowker, A. (1992). The American Indian Female
Dropout. Journal of American Indian Education, 31 (3), pp.
3 - 19.
Brady, P. (1996). Native dropouts and nonnative
dropouts in Canada: Two solitudes or a solitude shared? Arizona
State University Center for Indian Education, 35(2), pp.10-20.
Brady, J.V, Dingman,S.M., & Mroczka, M.A.
(1995). Predicting success for American Indian students. Journal
of American Indian Education, 34, pp.10 - 30.
Brandt, R. (1987). On leadership and student
achievement: A conversation with Richard Andrews. Educational Leadership,44
(1), pp. 9 - 16.
Caine, R.N. & Caine, G.
(1997). Education on the Edge of Possibility. Virginia: Association
for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
(This text is required reading for the MEd course
entitled, Critical Approaches to Teaching.) This book explores the
realities of learning theory when used in the classroom. Caine &
Caine (1997) describe what happened when they implemented their
theory of brain-based learning in two schools. It is an honest and
revealing look at brain-based learning theory in action. The book
is not about brain-research; rather it describes how teachers in
two schools attempted to use brain research in their classroom.
Caine and Caine (1997) open up the creativity of teaching; teachers
are encouraged to explore new ways to teach. Caine and Caine (1997)
describe this learning process not as training but as transformation.
Their terms and definitions are very clear and their use of metaphor
and examples provided help readers to identify the relativity with
their own schools. Although Dry Creek and Park View schools are
different, their characteristics are sure to appear in many schools.
Caine and Caine (1997) wrote the book very openly, almost like what
one would expect an “I-Search” paper to be like. Not everything
that Caine & Caine (1997) tried worked as they had hoped but
they were not afraid to acknowledge their trials and tribulations.
This is the first book of two books exploring brain-based teaching
in the classroom. The second, entitled Unleashing the Power of Perceptual
Change: The Potential for Brain-Based Teaching (1997), focuses more
on the instructional approaches, perceptual orientations, and transformation
process. Caine and Caine (1997) give license to educators
to try new approaches in the classroom.
Caine, R.N. & Caine, G. (1994). Making
Connections: Teaching and the Human Brain. California, Addison-
(This text is required reading for the MEd course
entitled, Critical Approaches to Teaching.)
Making Connections is a valuable resource linking brain
research to education. The authors show how recent breakthroughs
in brain research affect teaching and learning. Their book starts
with brain basics to bring the reader up to date with recent information.
Their chapter entitled, Principles of Brain-Based Learning neatly
summarizes research in twelve principals. Part three of their book
relates directly to the implications of brain research for education.
Caine & Caine (1994) explore concepts such as: Orchestrated
Immersion, Relaxed Immersion, and Active Processing. With respect
to the topic of Inuit Dropout, Making Connections brings
to light some of the barriers to learning that may be the result
of misunderstanding about how the brain works. Another interesting
aspect of this book is the chapter explaining how threat influences
Making Connections provides a way for educators to evaluate
their own practice with respect to the level of brain-compatibility.
The book is a good way to introduce brain research to educators
but for more detailed information regarding how the brain functions
it would be important to go to other resources. With respect to
Inuit dropout, I would like to see Caine & Caine look into cultural
learning patterns with respect to how the brain functions. As well,
gender differences were not particularly explored. Caine and Caine
are beginning to look closer at how emotion affects learning which
will also be revealing for educators.
Condon, R. G. (1988). Inuit Youth Growth
and Change in the Canadian Arctic. New Brunswick: Rutgers University
Connor, Desmond M. (1987). Diagnosing Community
Problems. Victoria, B.C.: Development Press.
Connor, D.M. (1997). Public Participation:
A Manual How to Prevent and Resolve Public Controversy. Victoria,
B.C.: Development Press.
Costa, A.L. (1992). The Learning Community.
In Costa,A., Bellanca, J. & Fogarty, R. (Eds.). If Minds Matter:
A Foreword to the Future. vol. 2, (pp 93 - 101) Illinois: SkyLight
Training and Publishing, Inc.
(The text, If Minds Matter is required reading
for the MEd course entitled, Learning Theory.)
Costa is one of the editors in the valuable double
volume, If Minds Matter: A Foreword to Future. This article
by Costa (1992) outlines the importance of all to work together
to improve learning. Costa (1992) believes that the goal is to promote
intellectual growth of all members of the school community. Through
the use of a common vision, all members of the school community
(teachers, students, community, administration) can work to increase
thinking. Costa (1992) proposes three environmental conditions that
promote intellectual growth of all members of the school. The first
of these is the evolution of a common vision shared by all of the
school as a community. When all members of the school community
hold a strong sense of purposefulness and vision of the future,
they align their efforts towards a growth of intelligence. Beliefs
in the vision are shown through shared learning and report of progress.
To learn, humans need engagement and transformation which requires
time, a feeling of ownership, commitment and a learning arena (Costa,
This article provided the initiative to look at the dropout situation
from many perspectives and consider how each member of the school
community were affected by the phenomenon of dropout. In tight knit
communities like those found in the north, it is important that
all members are in support of education. Costa (1992) outlines the
ways that the community can be part of the process. The strength
of the article is in the value placed creating a shared vision.
At this point in the development of Inuit schools in Nunavut, it
is very important that all members are on side. To really understand
the way to establishing a learning community like that described
in this article, one would have to go further to read other work
by Costa; this article is a good way to introduce the theme but
it is only a beginning.
Daniels, Harvey (1994). Literature
Circles: Voice and Choice in the Student - Centred Classroom.
Maine: Stenhouse Publishers.
Drawing on the work of 24 contributing teachers,
Daniels (1994) tells of the success and value of allowing student
choice and voice in the classroom. The book tells of accounts of
real teachers who have used the model of Literature Circles. The
author discusses how the model was tried and tested in classroom
and how these trials helped to create the present model he proposes
for use. Daniels (1994) discuss all of the logistics of running
Literature Circles in the classroom and integrates two of the most
important ideas in education in his model: collaborative learning
and independent reading. Daniels (1994) give teachers a model to
provide this sharing and learning with students of all ages. Literature
Circles allow teachers to observe genuine student interaction and
collaboration. Talking about books is a very authentic teaching
method; it is true to the “adult” world. Literature Circles (Daniels,1994)
give the ownership of learning back to the student. It allows them
choice and gives them a natural way to discuss their learning. His
theory is in line with the brain-based learning models which emphasize
that children need to be involved in order to comprehend.
I have used the Literature Circle model extensively
in my language arts and English classes. I like they way that students
are required to look beyond a basic summary into connections and
important parts of the story. Althought there are many strengths
in this text, Daniels (1994) could have included more direction
for evaluation. Also, final group projects using the Literature
Circle model might have been suggested for closure.
Darling-Hammond, L. (1998). Teacher learning
that supports student learning. Educational Leadership, 55,
(5), pp. 6 - 11.
(The article is required reading for the
MEd course entitled, Leadership in Learning.)
This article by Darling-Hammond (1998) presents teachers with a
path to professionalism. It makes the link between teacher learning
and student learning. Darling-Hammond (1998) talks of teachers as
professionals who are passionate about learning for both themselves
and for their students. Her article explores what teachers need
to know in order to educate “the most diverse student body in our
history to higher academic standards than ever before” (p. 7). She
emphasizes continuous teacher learning and states that to achieve
these higher standards, it requires schools to be organized to support
and promote professional improvement for its teachers. Darling-Hammond
(1998) investigates 1) what teachers need to know in order to teach
to today’s standards; 2) the ways in which teacher learning can
be increased to support student learning. Darling-Hammond (1998)
encourages teachers to practice what they preach: Never stop learning.
Students will benefit by having teachers who are willing to become
better professionals and by seeing role models who are committed
The strengths of this article by Darling-Hammond (1998) are many;
not only does it encourage teachers to get back on the learning
path, but it gives teachers examples of how this learning environment
can be created. The ideas are clearly written and the points of
importance are nicely bulleted for easy reference. This information
is supported by leading researchers in the field of professional
development and learning theory. The author includes quotations
and stories by real teachers who have benefited from ongoing professional
development. The article gives hope to those who are wanting to
be a better professionals but do not know how to go from coping
well to teaching well. However, Darling- Hammond (1998) does not
emphasize enough the benefits that students gain by having teachers
who are participating in ongoing learning experiences. The title
of the article indicates that focus of the article would balance
between teacher learning and student learning. Unfortunately, it
is not until the very end of the article that Darling-Hammond (1998)
attempts to explain how students might benefit by the desired professional
development outlined for teachers. I believe that much more could
have been written to convince readers how teacher learning can support
student learning. Darling-Hammond (1998) could have emphasized this
important aspect of the article more strongly for those readers
who are still unconvinced of the benefits of ongoing professional
DaSilva, C. & Hallett, C. (unpublished).
Northern Lights: A Research Study of Successful High School Students
Day, J., Rudduck, J. & Wallace, G.(1997).
Students perspectives on school improvement. ASCD Yearbook
. pp. 73 - 91.
Deal, T.E. & Peterson, K.D. (1998). How
leaders influence the culture of schools. Educational leadership,
56, (1). pp. 28 - 30.
Dehyle, D. (1992). Constructing failure and
maintaining cultural identity: Navajo and Ute school leavers. Journal
of American Indian Education, 31, 24 - 47.
The Department of Education, Culture and Employment
(unpublished). Review of Secondary Education in the NWT 1998.
Eberhard,D.R. (1989). American
Indian education: a study of dropouts, 1980 - 1987. Journal of
American Indian Education, 29, pp. 32 - 40.
Facundo, B.(1984). Freire Inspired
Programs in the United States and Puerto Rico: A Critical Evaluation.
[Online]. Available: http://nlu.nl.edu/ace/Resources/Documents/Facundo.html#Contents
Foster, A.G. (1991). When teachers initiate
restructuring. Educational Leadership, 48, (5), pp.27 - 30.
Fussell, W. (1996). The Value of Local Knowledge
and the Importance of Shifting Beliefs in the Process of Social Change.
Community Development Journal, 31 pp.44 - 53.
Freire, P. (1997). Pedagogy of the Oppressed.
New York: Continuum.
(The text is suggested reading for the MEd course
Freire’s work has been considered quite controversial over the
years. Pedagogy of the Oppressed (Freire, 1997), describes
what he terms as liberatory education in which he focuses on the
education of adults. His work is packed with new terminology and
extensive causative relationships to express his theory. At times,
his writing is so complex that the best way to understand what he
is trying to communicate is to go to alternative sources which tend
to put his meanings into simpler phrases. Once one understands the
new terminology that he coins in his book , one is better able to
go back to the original source and read on from there (ex. banking
education, conscientization, problematization, etc).
One of the critisms of the Friere's ideas in the text have built-in
limitations.Marsh & Willis (1999) state with regards to Freire (1997),
“what is useful at one time and under one set of circumstances may
not be as useful as time passes or circumstances change” (p. 50).
Facundo (1984) is one who believes that we must come to terms with
the fact that “after a decade of trying to practice Freire’s education
philosophy. . is not applicable to our work” (p.2). Facundo (1984)
states that interest in work by Freire (1997) has fluctuated between
those who are inclined to his writing technique and those who are
drawn by his educational philosophy and process. Facundo (1984)
goes on to say that a key issue is a lack of understanding of Freire’s
intellectual development and she calls his writing obscure. Those
who are able to get through the text find it very hard to transfer
his ideas into other situations. Gadotti & Torres (No date) question
this transferability by stating: “As brilliant as they are, Freire’s
theories were developed in a completely different social and political
context”(p.1). For Freire (1997), education is political and there
is no other way around it (McClafferty, No date). It is to create
social change. He does not address what happens once change has
occurred other than to say that new leaders must beware of falling
into the patterns of an oppressor once again (Freire, 1997). Unfortunately,
the pedagogy described in his book can be seen as having built-in
limits for its usefulness if only used to political revolutionary
For North American audiences who expect a manual of teacher proof
ideas, Pedagogy of the Oppressed (Freire, 1997) requires much more
thinking. His attitude is basically that people must work out their
own theory and develop their own solutions. This frustrates many
readers. As Ohliger (1995) states: “adopting Freire’s positions
without reflecting upon their contradictions only creates . . as
it has created -- a great deal of confusion.” (p. 8). Smith (1997)
cites four points of criticism. They being 1) his language is and
appeal is to mystical concerns 2)that Freire argues in an either/or
way; you’re with the oppressed or you are against them which can
result in a too simplistic political analysis; 3) Freire tends to
turn every little daily event into a ‘teachable moment’; and, 4)
that his liberatory could easily become banking education when leaders
try to sneak in ideas and values in the process. All of these criticisms
may lead more conservative educators to forgo the volatile nature
of the pedagogy of Freire (1997) out of misinterpretation and confusion.
Despite many criticisms, Freire (1997) has much to offer to educators.
His ideas of dialogical method, problematization, praxis and decodification
with generative themes aligns very well with many of today’s theorist.
Latin America is not the only place that deals with the turmoil
of cultural, political and economic problems. Freire (1997) explains
that oppressors use banking education to perpetuate negative myths
and to strengthen oppression. We find this same situation occurring
in United States and Canada most prominently in the assimilation
of Native people into mainstream Euro-centric society. When we turn
our attention to home, we can see how the goal of residential schooling
of Native students really worked to reinforce oppression. These
people became objects on which education radically stripped away
their cultural identity and self-esteem. The side effects of residential
schooling still linger from a generation ago. It was not until just
recently that Inuit communities were financed to create community
high schools. Dropout rates still soar in these remote communities
and illiteracy rates are high. All of these factors work to create
what Freire (1997) would call an oppressed society needing liberatory
education. To dismiss Freire (1997) entirely would be a real waste
of intellectual and educational thought. Many of the ideas in
Pedagogy of the Oppressed (Freire, 1997) are important but perhaps
the political context of the pedagogy is not directly applicable
to our world today.
Gadotti, M. & Torres, C.A.(No
date). Paulo Freire: A Homage. [Online]. Available: http://nlu.nl.edu/ace/Homage.html
Garmston, R. & Wellman, B. (1998). Teacher
talk that makes a difference. Educational Leadership, 56, (7),
pp. 30 - 34.
Gardner, H.(1999). Intelligence Reframed.
New York: Basic Books.
Gougeon, T. (unpublished). Social dynamics
in small isolated communities.
Graves, L.N. (1992). Cooperative learning communities:
Context for a new vision of education and society. Journal of education,
174, (2), pp. 57 - 77.
Gudykunst, W. (1998). Bridging Differences:
Effective intergroup communication. 3rd Ed. California: Sage Publications.
Hagstrom, D., Kleinfeld, J.,
& McDiarmid, G.W. (1989). Small local high schools decrease Alaska
Native drop-out rates. Journal of American Indian Education, 28,
pp. 24 - 29.
Harris, Phillip. (1992). Restructuring for
learning. In Costa, A., Bellanca, J. & Fogarty, R. (Eds.). If
Minds Matter: A Foreword to the Future vol 1. (pp 3 - 11) Illinois:
SkyLight Training and Publishing, Inc.
Heaney, T.(1989). Issues in Freirean Pedagogy.
[Online]. Available: http://nlu.nl.edu/ace/Resources/Documents/FreireIssues.html
Hornett, D. (1989). The role of faculty in
cultural awareness and retention of American Indian college students.
Journal of American Indian Education, 29, pp. 13 - 17.
Inuuqatigiit. (1996). Yellowknife:
Government of Northwest Territories.
Jewison, C. (1995). Our students,
our future: Innovation in First Nations education in the NWT. Education
Canada, 35 (1), pp. 4 - 11.
Kazanas, H.C. & Rothwell
W. (1998). Mastering the instructional design process: A systematic
approach 2nd Ed. San Franciso: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Kilpatrick, D. (1996). Great Ideas Revisited.
in EDER 675 Book of Readings, Winter 2000. ED. Clark, D. &
Childs, E. Calgary: University of Calgary.
Kohn, A. (1997). How not to teach values: A
critical look at character education. Phi Delta Kappan, pp.
429 - 439.
Lamdin, D.J. (1996). Evidence
of student attendance as an independent variable in education production
functions. Journal of Educational Research,89, pp. 155 - 162.
Lamdin, D.J. (1998). Attendance revisited:
A reply to Borland and Howsen. Journal of Educational Research,91,
pp. 198 - 200.
Ledlow, S. (1992). Is cultural discontinuity
an adequate explanation for dropping out? Journal of American Indian
Education. 31, pp. 21 - 35.
Leithwood, K.A. (1992). The move toward transformational
leadership. Educational Leadership, 50 (5), 8 - 12.
Levin, B. (1994). Improving educational productivity:
Putting students at the center. Phi Delta Kappan, 758 - 760.
Lin, R., LaCounte,D.,& Eder, J. (1988).
A study of Native American students in a predominantly white college.
Journal of American Indian Education, 27, 8 - 15.
Lincoln, Y.S. (1995). In search of students
voices. Theory Into Practice 34, (2), 88 - 93.
Liontos, Lynn Balster. (1992). Transformational
leadership. ERIC digest [On-line], 72. Available: ERIC
Clearinghouse on Educational Management, ED347636.
Mackay, R. & Myles, L.
(1989). A major challenge for the educational system: Aboriginal retention
and dropout. In Battiste, M. & Barman, J. (1995). First Nations
Education in Canada: The Circle Unfolds. Vancouver, Canada: University
of British Columbia Press. pp. 157 - 178.
Marsh, C.J. & Willis, G. (1999). Curriculum:
Alternative Approaches, Ongoing Issues 2 ed. New Jersey: Prentice
Marshall, Catherine & Gretchen B. Rossman
(1995). Designing Qualitative Research 2 ed. California: Sage.
McClafferty, K.(No date). Book review of: Freire,
Paulo (1993/1970). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum
Publishing Co. [Online]. Available: http://fcis.oise.utoronto.ca/~daniel_schugurenshky/freire/mcclafferty.html
Mills, C.W. (1959). Personal troubles and public
issues. The Sociological Imagination. New York: Oxford University
Murphy, J. (1989). The paradox of decentralizing
schools: Lessons from business, government, and the Catholic church.
Phi Delta Kappan, 808 - 812.
Murphy, J. (1988). The unheroic side of leadership:
Notes from the swamp. Phi Delta Kappan, 654 - 659.
Neuman, W. Lawrence (1997).
Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches.
3 ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Nunavut Department of Education (1999). Vision
for an Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit school. [Brochure].
Ohliger, J. (1995). Critical
views of Paulo Freires work. [Online]. Available: http://nul.nl.edu.ace.Resources/Documents/Ohliger1.html#1
Parker, R. (1984). A system
for constraint removal. In EDER 675 Book of Readings, Winter 2000.
ED. Clark, D. & Childs, E. Calgary: University of Calgary
Pierce, C. (1994). Importance of classroom
climate for at-risk learners. Journal of Educational Research,
88, pp. 37 - 42.
Prawat, R. S. (1992). From individual differences
to learning communities - our changing focus. Educational Leadership
49, (5), pp. 9 -13.
Reeves, D. (1997). Consultation
and development plans: Preparation andimplementation of the advisory
group process. Community Development Journal, 32. pp.332 -
Reyher, J. (1992). American Indians out of
school: A review of school-based causes and solutions. Journal
of American Indian Education, 31, pp. 37 - 53.
Renchler, R. (1992). School leadership and
student motivation. ERIC digest [On-line], 71. Available:
ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, ED346558.
Rhoades, J.& McCabe, M. (1992). Cognition
and cooperation: Partners in excellence. In Costa, A., Bellanca, J.
& Fogarty, R. (Eds.). If Minds Matter: A Foreword to the Future.
vol. 2, (pp 43 - 51) Illinois: SkyLight Training and Publishing, Inc.
Rindone,P. (1988). Achievement motivation and
academic achievement of Native American students. Journal of American
Indian Education, 28, pp.1 - 8.
Ross, M.(1992). Leadership synergy. In Webber,
C.F., Bosetti, L., & Johnson, F.T. (Eds). Trends in Educational
Leadership (pp. 3 - 13). Calgary: The University of Calgary.
Ross, R. (1992). Dancing with a ghost: Exploring
Indian reality. Markham, Ontario: Reed Books.
(This text was recommended by Dr. Tom Gougeon during a M.Ed. course
entitled, Social Dynamics of Rural Education.)
This Canadian perspective is an attempt to come to an understanding
of the differences between two cultures: Native and non-Native. Ross
(1992) writes with honesty and openness. His work outlines some of
the basic yet harmful misconceptions that non-Natives have about Natives.
Ross worked for many years with the justice department in Northern
Ontario and he writes from his observations of his time with Natives.
His book is divided into two parts: 1) Excavating Traditional Reality,
which describes the rules of traditional times including the ethics
which are often misunderstood by non-Natives, and 2) Understanding
the Present, which explores the need for Natives to reevaluate their
culture in light of the demands of the modern times. This book is
very influential and should be read by all non-Natives who are trying
to come to terms with the Native experience. It's easy language and
straightforward tone is welcomed. The text is not limited to First
Nations connections and the ideas written are transferable to Inuit
societies. The book can also be read as a non-fiction novel of growth
as the author describes his learning and understanding over time.
Although Ross (1992) writes from the perspective of the court, much
of his content is able to be understood by those outside of the legal
system. Those in the education system will relate to his need to understand
the people who he is there to serve.It is not a manual on community
development but it is a beginning in changining the way non-Native
think about the Native experience.The book encourages us to come up
with ways to build a nation which values both societies.
Rothman, J. (1995). Approaches to community
intervention. Strategies of Community Intervention, Eds. Rothman,
J., Erlich, J., & Tropman, J. Itasca, Illinois: F.E. Peacock Publishers.
Schugurensky,D.(No date). 1968:
Paulo Freire publishes Pedagogy of the Oppressed. [Online]. Available:
Sergiovanni, T. J. (1992). Why we should seek
substitutes for leadership. Educational Leadership. 5 pp.41
Sergiovanni, T.J. (1994). Organizations or
communities? Changing the metaphor changes the theory. Educational
Administration Quarterly, 30, (2), pp.214 - 226.
Smith, M.K. (1997). Paulo Freire. The informal
education homepage. [Online]. Available: http//www.infed.org/thinkers/et-freir.htm
State of Alaska, Dept. of Health and Social
Services. (1990). Pulling together. Division of Mental Health
and Developmental Disabilities, Rural and Native Services.
Storey, G. (1997). The nuts n bolts
of career and program plan implementation guide. draft #2. (unpublished).
Suicide Prevention Training Programs (1998).
Saving lives: Community development for Aboriginal people. Calgary,
Alberta: Royal Canadian Mounted Police/ Community Suicide Prevention
Program, Aboriginal Policing Branch.
Swisher, K. & Hoisch, M. (1992) Dropping
out among American Indians and Alaska Natives: a review of studies.
Journal of American Indian Education, 31, pp.3 -23.
Tannen, D. (1990). You just
dont understand: Men and women in conversation. New York:
(This text is required reading for the M.Ed. course Communications
This book by Tannen (1990) is a wonderful way to
explore communication patterns between men and women. The title
says it all - despite all efforts, there are time when the sexes
just can't understand one another. Tannen (1990) takes a critical
yet comical look at the ways that stereotypes, misunderstanding,
expectations and myth affect our communication with the opposite
sex. According to Tannen (1990), "if we can sort out our differences
based on conversational style, we will be in a better position of
confront real conflicts of interest - and to find a shared language
in which to negotiate them" (p. 18). This book is a good way
to start exploring the roots of conversational style. The book includes
chapters on: asymmetries of cross-purpose talk; rapport-talk versus
report-talk; lecturing and listening; community and contest; dominance
and control; cross talk across ages; and, opening lines of communication.
This is a valuable resource when trying to analyze
communication differences that challenge relationships between people.
Tannen (1990) does a good job of making both sexes feel comfortable
with the issues discussed. At times, when the discussion paint males
negatively, Tannen (1990) reminds readers of generalities used to
make statements. The text would be useful for school staffs and
other such groups who are working together. Also, gender differences
are often at the root of disagreements between teachers and students.
Older students may be interested in reading parts of the text in
order to have a better grasp of the communication patterns in their
relationships. The stories and analogies are relevant to an older
crowd and they bring clarity to difficult concepts. The book does
not discuss cultural differences at this point and this would be
an important topic to discuss in further exploration.
Tompkins, J. (1998). Teaching in a cold
and windy place: Change in an Inuit school. Toronto: University
of Toronto Press.
(This book was used in the M.Ed. course entitled, Leadership in
This book by Joanne Tompkins is an enthographical research study
of an Inuit community in the Canadian arctic. Tompkins (1998) writes
from her experiences as a principal in a small school in Anurapaktuq
(1987 - 1992). During her time, many positive changes occurred in
the school and community which resulted in higher school attendance
and increased school success. This book is one of the few resources
that deals directly with the educational situation for Inuit in
Canada. Tompkins (1998) demonstrates how good leadership can make
a difference with respect to decreasing the rates of Inuit dropout.
The writing in the book is easy to comprehend even for those who
have never taught in an isolated Inuit community before. Tompkins
(1998) tackles many issues which impact the educational success
of Inuit. She writes about the misconceptions between the southern
(Qallunaaq) teachers and the Inuit community. She discusses how
high rates of teacher turnover (teachers leaving the community after
two or three years) can impact on the image of the school. Tompkins
emphasizes the importance of creating a caring community within
the walls of the school. Her comments are valid and important for
educators who are trying to make education better for Inuit students.
Even though her writing predates the transfer of power to Nunavut
in April 1999, Tompkins (1998) is still able to bring light on difficult
issues. Now that Nunavut Education is taking on the job of revamping
the education system in the north, it is important that decision-makers
be sure to tackle the issues about which Tompkins (1998) has written.
Unfortunatly, Tompkins (1998) does not include quanitative research
and it is often difficult to get goverment decision-makers to read
a more narrative description of the situation. Her work may have
been more influenctial had she included quantitative research within
Wilson, P. (1991) . Trauma
of Sioux high school students. Anthropology & Education
Quarterly, 22 (4), pp.367 - 383.
Boucher, M. L. Jr. (1998). Paulo Freire. [Online].
Available: http://www.hamline.edu/~boucher/freire.html [15/01/00].
Collins, Denis.(No date). Paulo Freire. [Online].
Available: http://nlu.nl.edu/ace/Resources/Freire.html [15/01/00].