Alberta Education (1998). School-based decision making resource guide: Focus on teaching and learning. Alberta.

Andrews, R. L., & Smith, W.E. (1989). Instructional leadership: How principals make a difference. The Principal as Instructional Leader. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Archibald, A. & Swinth R.L. (1990). Power and dependence between the core and rural communities: Participating with Major Actors in Solving Problems. Journal of Community Development Society, 21, pp. 70 - 82.

The Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development (1996, May). Education Update: Paulo Freire Invokes "Dreams and Utopias." vol. 38, no. 5. [Online]. Available: [15/01/00].

Astuto, T.A. & Clark, D.L. (1994). Redirecting reform: Challenges to popular assumptions about teachers and students. Phi Delta Kappan, pp. 513 - 520.

Backes,J.S. (1993). The American Indian high school dropout rate: A Matter of Style? Journal of American Indian Education, 32, pp. 16 - 29.

Barton, J. & Ward, A. (1995). Making schools intentionally inviting to Native American students. Contemporary Education LXVII, 1 , pp. 26 - 29.

Barman, J. & Battiste, M. (1995). First Nations education in Canada: The circle unfolds. Vancouver, B.C.: UBC Press.

This volume is a collection of research and essays that explore the various aspects of the schooling of Aboriginal children in adults. Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experts probe the philosophical basis of First Nations education. The editors uses the theme of a medicine wheel, a powerful Aboriginal symbol for reconceptualizing, to discuss the issues. Included in the volume are important articles: "A Major Challenge for the Education System: Aboriginal Retention and Dropout" (Mackay & Myles,1989) and "Non-Native Teachers Teaching in Native Communities" (Taylor, 1995). This volume is particularly important because it is one of the few resources that discusses the Canadian experienceé

Before I started my degree, I chose to read this collection to prepare me for the type of reading required by the M.Ed. program. I wanted to reading articles that are relevant to my teaching situation in a Native school. Although the articles focus on First Nations education, much of what is discussed connects to issues in Inuit education. The strength of this volume is found in the authors clariety in writing about difficult issues and the level of Canadian content present. Some of the articles need to provide more direction for the improvement of current schools with multicultural and global demands.

Bellanca, Costa & Fogarty (1992). If Minds Matter Vol 1. Illinois: SkyLight Publishing.

Borland, M.V. & Howsen, R.M. (1998). Effect of student attendance on performance: comment on Lamdin. Journal of Educational Research, 91, pp 195 - 197.

Bowker, A. (1992). The American Indian Female Dropout. Journal of American Indian Education, 31 (3), pp. 3 - 19.

Brady, P. (1996). Native dropouts and nonnative dropouts in Canada: Two solitudes or a solitude shared? Arizona State University Center for Indian Education, 35(2), pp.10-20.

Brady, J.V, Dingman,S.M., & Mroczka, M.A. (1995). Predicting success for American Indian students. Journal of American Indian Education, 34, pp.10 - 30.

Brandt, R. (1987). On leadership and student achievement: A conversation with Richard Andrews. Educational Leadership,44 (1), pp. 9 - 16.

Caine, R.N. & Caine, G. (1997). Education on the Edge of Possibility. Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

(This text is required reading for the MEd course entitled, Critical Approaches to Teaching.) This book explores the realities of learning theory when used in the classroom. Caine & Caine (1997) describe what happened when they implemented their theory of brain-based learning in two schools. It is an honest and revealing look at brain-based learning theory in action. The book is not about brain-research; rather it describes how teachers in two schools attempted to use brain research in their classroom. Caine and Caine (1997) open up the creativity of teaching; teachers are encouraged to explore new ways to teach. Caine and Caine (1997) describe this learning process not as training but as transformation. Their terms and definitions are very clear and their use of metaphor and examples provided help readers to identify the relativity with their own schools. Although Dry Creek and Park View schools are different, their characteristics are sure to appear in many schools. Caine and Caine (1997) wrote the book very openly, almost like what one would expect an “I-Search” paper to be like. Not everything that Caine & Caine (1997) tried worked as they had hoped but they were not afraid to acknowledge their trials and tribulations. This is the first book of two books exploring brain-based teaching in the classroom. The second, entitled Unleashing the Power of Perceptual Change: The Potential for Brain-Based Teaching (1997), focuses more on the instructional approaches, perceptual orientations, and transformation process. Caine and Caine (1997) give license to educators to try new approaches in the classroom.

Caine, R.N. & Caine, G. (1994). Making Connections: Teaching and the Human Brain. California, Addison- Wesley.

(This text is required reading for the MEd course entitled, Critical Approaches to Teaching.)

Making Connections is a valuable resource linking brain research to education. The authors show how recent breakthroughs in brain research affect teaching and learning. Their book starts with brain basics to bring the reader up to date with recent information. Their chapter entitled, Principles of Brain-Based Learning neatly summarizes research in twelve principals. Part three of their book relates directly to the implications of brain research for education. Caine & Caine (1994) explore concepts such as: Orchestrated Immersion, Relaxed Immersion, and Active Processing. With respect to the topic of Inuit Dropout, Making Connections brings to light some of the barriers to learning that may be the result of misunderstanding about how the brain works. Another interesting aspect of this book is the chapter explaining how threat influences learning.

Making Connections provides a way for educators to evaluate their own practice with respect to the level of brain-compatibility. The book is a good way to introduce brain research to educators but for more detailed information regarding how the brain functions it would be important to go to other resources. With respect to Inuit dropout, I would like to see Caine & Caine look into cultural learning patterns with respect to how the brain functions. As well, gender differences were not particularly explored. Caine and Caine are beginning to look closer at how emotion affects learning which will also be revealing for educators.

Condon, R. G. (1988). Inuit Youth Growth and Change in the Canadian Arctic. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.

Connor, Desmond M. (1987). Diagnosing Community Problems. Victoria, B.C.: Development Press.

Connor, D.M. (1997). Public Participation: A Manual How to Prevent and Resolve Public Controversy. Victoria, B.C.: Development Press.

Costa, A.L. (1992). The Learning Community. In Costa,A., Bellanca, J. & Fogarty, R. (Eds.). If Minds Matter: A Foreword to the Future. vol. 2, (pp 93 - 101) Illinois: SkyLight Training and Publishing, Inc.

(The text, If Minds Matter is required reading for the MEd course entitled, Learning Theory.)

Costa is one of the editors in the valuable double volume, If Minds Matter: A Foreword to Future. This article by Costa (1992) outlines the importance of all to work together to improve learning. Costa (1992) believes that the goal is to promote intellectual growth of all members of the school community. Through the use of a common vision, all members of the school community (teachers, students, community, administration) can work to increase thinking. Costa (1992) proposes three environmental conditions that promote intellectual growth of all members of the school. The first of these is the evolution of a common vision shared by all of the school as a community. When all members of the school community hold a strong sense of purposefulness and vision of the future, they align their efforts towards a growth of intelligence. Beliefs in the vision are shown through shared learning and report of progress. To learn, humans need engagement and transformation which requires time, a feeling of ownership, commitment and a learning arena (Costa, 1992).

This article provided the initiative to look at the dropout situation from many perspectives and consider how each member of the school community were affected by the phenomenon of dropout. In tight knit communities like those found in the north, it is important that all members are in support of education. Costa (1992) outlines the ways that the community can be part of the process. The strength of the article is in the value placed creating a shared vision. At this point in the development of Inuit schools in Nunavut, it is very important that all members are on side. To really understand the way to establishing a learning community like that described in this article, one would have to go further to read other work by Costa; this article is a good way to introduce the theme but it is only a beginning.

Daniels, Harvey (1994). Literature Circles: Voice and Choice in the Student - Centred Classroom. Maine: Stenhouse Publishers.

Drawing on the work of 24 contributing teachers, Daniels (1994) tells of the success and value of allowing student choice and voice in the classroom. The book tells of accounts of real teachers who have used the model of Literature Circles. The author discusses how the model was tried and tested in classroom and how these trials helped to create the present model he proposes for use. Daniels (1994) discuss all of the logistics of running Literature Circles in the classroom and integrates two of the most important ideas in education in his model: collaborative learning and independent reading. Daniels (1994) give teachers a model to provide this sharing and learning with students of all ages. Literature Circles allow teachers to observe genuine student interaction and collaboration. Talking about books is a very authentic teaching method; it is true to the “adult” world. Literature Circles (Daniels,1994) give the ownership of learning back to the student. It allows them choice and gives them a natural way to discuss their learning. His theory is in line with the brain-based learning models which emphasize that children need to be involved in order to comprehend.

I have used the Literature Circle model extensively in my language arts and English classes. I like they way that students are required to look beyond a basic summary into connections and important parts of the story. Althought there are many strengths in this text, Daniels (1994) could have included more direction for evaluation. Also, final group projects using the Literature Circle model might have been suggested for closure.

Darling-Hammond, L. (1998). Teacher learning that supports student learning. Educational Leadership, 55, (5), pp. 6 - 11.

(The article is required reading for the MEd course entitled, Leadership in Learning.)

This article by Darling-Hammond (1998) presents teachers with a path to professionalism. It makes the link between teacher learning and student learning. Darling-Hammond (1998) talks of teachers as professionals who are passionate about learning for both themselves and for their students. Her article explores what teachers need to know in order to educate “the most diverse student body in our history to higher academic standards than ever before” (p. 7). She emphasizes continuous teacher learning and states that to achieve these higher standards, it requires schools to be organized to support and promote professional improvement for its teachers. Darling-Hammond (1998) investigates 1) what teachers need to know in order to teach to today’s standards; 2) the ways in which teacher learning can be increased to support student learning. Darling-Hammond (1998) encourages teachers to practice what they preach: Never stop learning. Students will benefit by having teachers who are willing to become better professionals and by seeing role models who are committed to learning.

The strengths of this article by Darling-Hammond (1998) are many; not only does it encourage teachers to get back on the learning path, but it gives teachers examples of how this learning environment can be created. The ideas are clearly written and the points of importance are nicely bulleted for easy reference. This information is supported by leading researchers in the field of professional development and learning theory. The author includes quotations and stories by real teachers who have benefited from ongoing professional development. The article gives hope to those who are wanting to be a better professionals but do not know how to go from coping well to teaching well. However, Darling- Hammond (1998) does not emphasize enough the benefits that students gain by having teachers who are participating in ongoing learning experiences. The title of the article indicates that focus of the article would balance between teacher learning and student learning. Unfortunately, it is not until the very end of the article that Darling-Hammond (1998) attempts to explain how students might benefit by the desired professional development outlined for teachers. I believe that much more could have been written to convince readers how teacher learning can support student learning. Darling-Hammond (1998) could have emphasized this important aspect of the article more strongly for those readers who are still unconvinced of the benefits of ongoing professional development.

DaSilva, C. & Hallett, C. (unpublished). Northern Lights: A Research Study of Successful High School Students Across Nunavut.

Day, J., Rudduck, J. & Wallace, G.(1997). Students’ perspectives on school improvement. ASCD Yearbook . pp. 73 - 91.

Deal, T.E. & Peterson, K.D. (1998). How leaders influence the culture of schools. Educational leadership, 56, (1). pp. 28 - 30.

Dehyle, D. (1992). Constructing failure and maintaining cultural identity: Navajo and Ute school leavers. Journal of American Indian Education, 31, 24 - 47.

The Department of Education, Culture and Employment (unpublished). Review of Secondary Education in the NWT 1998.

Eberhard,D.R. (1989). American Indian education: a study of dropouts, 1980 - 1987. Journal of American Indian Education, 29, pp. 32 - 40.


Facundo, B.(1984). Freire Inspired Programs in the United States and Puerto Rico: A Critical Evaluation. [Online]. Available: [15/01/00].

Foster, A.G. (1991). When teachers initiate restructuring. Educational Leadership, 48, (5), pp.27 - 30.

Fussell, W. (1996). The Value of Local Knowledge and the Importance of Shifting Beliefs in the Process of Social Change. Community Development Journal, 31 pp.44 - 53.

Freire, P. (1997). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum.

(The text is suggested reading for the MEd course entitled,Studying Curriculum.)

Freire’s work has been considered quite controversial over the years. Pedagogy of the Oppressed (Freire, 1997), describes what he terms as liberatory education in which he focuses on the education of adults. His work is packed with new terminology and extensive causative relationships to express his theory. At times, his writing is so complex that the best way to understand what he is trying to communicate is to go to alternative sources which tend to put his meanings into simpler phrases. Once one understands the new terminology that he coins in his book , one is better able to go back to the original source and read on from there (ex. banking education, conscientization, problematization, etc).

One of the critisms of the Friere's ideas in the text have built-in limitations.Marsh & Willis (1999) state with regards to Freire (1997), “what is useful at one time and under one set of circumstances may not be as useful as time passes or circumstances change” (p. 50). Facundo (1984) is one who believes that we must come to terms with the fact that “after a decade of trying to practice Freire’s education philosophy. . is not applicable to our work” (p.2). Facundo (1984) states that interest in work by Freire (1997) has fluctuated between those who are inclined to his writing technique and those who are drawn by his educational philosophy and process. Facundo (1984) goes on to say that a key issue is a lack of understanding of Freire’s intellectual development and she calls his writing obscure. Those who are able to get through the text find it very hard to transfer his ideas into other situations. Gadotti & Torres (No date) question this transferability by stating: “As brilliant as they are, Freire’s theories were developed in a completely different social and political context”(p.1). For Freire (1997), education is political and there is no other way around it (McClafferty, No date). It is to create social change. He does not address what happens once change has occurred other than to say that new leaders must beware of falling into the patterns of an oppressor once again (Freire, 1997). Unfortunately, the pedagogy described in his book can be seen as having built-in limits for its usefulness if only used to political revolutionary change.

For North American audiences who expect a manual of teacher proof ideas, Pedagogy of the Oppressed (Freire, 1997) requires much more thinking. His attitude is basically that people must work out their own theory and develop their own solutions. This frustrates many readers. As Ohliger (1995) states: “adopting Freire’s positions without reflecting upon their contradictions only creates . . as it has created -- a great deal of confusion.” (p. 8). Smith (1997) cites four points of criticism. They being 1) his language is and appeal is to mystical concerns 2)that Freire argues in an either/or way; you’re with the oppressed or you are against them which can result in a too simplistic political analysis; 3) Freire tends to turn every little daily event into a ‘teachable moment’; and, 4) that his liberatory could easily become banking education when leaders try to sneak in ideas and values in the process. All of these criticisms may lead more conservative educators to forgo the volatile nature of the pedagogy of Freire (1997) out of misinterpretation and confusion.

Despite many criticisms, Freire (1997) has much to offer to educators. His ideas of dialogical method, problematization, praxis and decodification with generative themes aligns very well with many of today’s theorist. Latin America is not the only place that deals with the turmoil of cultural, political and economic problems. Freire (1997) explains that oppressors use banking education to perpetuate negative myths and to strengthen oppression. We find this same situation occurring in United States and Canada most prominently in the assimilation of Native people into mainstream Euro-centric society. When we turn our attention to home, we can see how the goal of residential schooling of Native students really worked to reinforce oppression. These people became objects on which education radically stripped away their cultural identity and self-esteem. The side effects of residential schooling still linger from a generation ago. It was not until just recently that Inuit communities were financed to create community high schools. Dropout rates still soar in these remote communities and illiteracy rates are high. All of these factors work to create what Freire (1997) would call an oppressed society needing liberatory education. To dismiss Freire (1997) entirely would be a real waste of intellectual and educational thought. Many of the ideas in Pedagogy of the Oppressed (Freire, 1997) are important but perhaps the political context of the pedagogy is not directly applicable to our world today.

Gadotti, M. & Torres, C.A.(No date). Paulo Freire: A Homage. [Online]. Available: [15/01/00].

Garmston, R. & Wellman, B. (1998). Teacher talk that makes a difference. Educational Leadership, 56, (7), pp. 30 - 34.

Gardner, H.(1999). Intelligence Reframed. New York: Basic Books.

Gougeon, T. (unpublished). Social dynamics in small isolated communities.

Graves, L.N. (1992). Cooperative learning communities: Context for a new vision of education and society. Journal of education, 174, (2), pp. 57 - 77.

Gudykunst, W. (1998). Bridging Differences: Effective intergroup communication. 3rd Ed. California: Sage Publications.

Hagstrom, D., Kleinfeld, J., & McDiarmid, G.W. (1989). Small local high schools decrease Alaska Native drop-out rates. Journal of American Indian Education, 28, pp. 24 - 29.

Harris, Phillip. (1992). Restructuring for learning. In Costa, A., Bellanca, J. & Fogarty, R. (Eds.). If Minds Matter: A Foreword to the Future vol 1. (pp 3 - 11) Illinois: SkyLight Training and Publishing, Inc.

Heaney, T.(1989). Issues in Freirean Pedagogy. [Online]. Available: [15/01/00].

Hornett, D. (1989). The role of faculty in cultural awareness and retention of American Indian college students. Journal of American Indian Education, 29, pp. 13 - 17.

Inuuqatigiit. (1996). Yellowknife: Government of Northwest Territories.

Jewison, C. (1995). Our students, our future: Innovation in First Nations education in the NWT. Education Canada, 35 (1), pp. 4 - 11.

Kazanas, H.C. & Rothwell W. (1998). Mastering the instructional design process: A systematic approach 2nd Ed. San Franciso: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Kilpatrick, D. (1996). Great Ideas Revisited. in EDER 675 Book of Readings, Winter 2000. ED. Clark, D. & Childs, E. Calgary: University of Calgary.

Kohn, A. (1997). How not to teach values: A critical look at character education. Phi Delta Kappan, pp. 429 - 439.

Lamdin, D.J. (1996). Evidence of student attendance as an independent variable in education production functions. Journal of Educational Research,89, pp. 155 - 162.

Lamdin, D.J. (1998). Attendance revisited: A reply to Borland and Howsen. Journal of Educational Research,91, pp. 198 - 200.

Ledlow, S. (1992). Is cultural discontinuity an adequate explanation for dropping out? Journal of American Indian Education. 31, pp. 21 - 35.

Leithwood, K.A. (1992). The move toward transformational leadership. Educational Leadership, 50 (5), 8 - 12.

Levin, B. (1994). Improving educational productivity: Putting students at the center. Phi Delta Kappan, 758 - 760.

Lin, R., LaCounte,D.,& Eder, J. (1988). A study of Native American students in a predominantly white college. Journal of American Indian Education, 27, 8 - 15.

Lincoln, Y.S. (1995). In search of students’ voices. Theory Into Practice 34, (2), 88 - 93.

Liontos, Lynn Balster. (1992). Transformational leadership. ERIC digest [On-line], 72. Available: ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, ED347636.

Mackay, R. & Myles, L. (1989). A major challenge for the educational system: Aboriginal retention and dropout. In Battiste, M. & Barman, J. (1995). First Nations Education in Canada: The Circle Unfolds. Vancouver, Canada: University of British Columbia Press. pp. 157 - 178.

Marsh, C.J. & Willis, G. (1999). Curriculum: Alternative Approaches, Ongoing Issues 2 ed. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Marshall, Catherine & Gretchen B. Rossman (1995). Designing Qualitative Research 2 ed. California: Sage.

McClafferty, K.(No date). Book review of: Freire, Paulo (1993/1970). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Continuum Publishing Co. [Online]. Available: [15/01/00].

Mills, C.W. (1959). Personal troubles and public issues. The Sociological Imagination. New York: Oxford University Press.

Murphy, J. (1989). The paradox of decentralizing schools: Lessons from business, government, and the Catholic church. Phi Delta Kappan, 808 - 812.

Murphy, J. (1988). The unheroic side of leadership: Notes from the swamp. Phi Delta Kappan, 654 - 659.

Neuman, W. Lawrence (1997). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches. 3 ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Nunavut Department of Education (1999). Vision for an Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit school. [Brochure].

Ohliger, J. (1995). Critical views of Paulo Freire’s work. [Online]. Available: [15/01/00].

Parker, R. (1984). A system for constraint removal. In EDER 675 Book of Readings, Winter 2000. ED. Clark, D. & Childs, E. Calgary: University of Calgary

Pierce, C. (1994). Importance of classroom climate for at-risk learners. Journal of Educational Research, 88, pp. 37 - 42.

Prawat, R. S. (1992). From individual differences to learning communities - our changing focus. Educational Leadership 49, (5), pp. 9 -13.

Reeves, D. (1997). Consultation and development plans: Preparation andimplementation of the advisory group process. Community Development Journal, 32. pp.332 - 341.

Reyher, J. (1992). American Indians out of school: A review of school-based causes and solutions. Journal of American Indian Education, 31, pp. 37 - 53.

Renchler, R. (1992). School leadership and student motivation. ERIC digest [On-line], 71. Available: ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, ED346558.

Rhoades, J.& McCabe, M. (1992). Cognition and cooperation: Partners in excellence. In Costa, A., Bellanca, J. & Fogarty, R. (Eds.). If Minds Matter: A Foreword to the Future. vol. 2, (pp 43 - 51) Illinois: SkyLight Training and Publishing, Inc.

Rindone,P. (1988). Achievement motivation and academic achievement of Native American students. Journal of American Indian Education, 28, pp.1 - 8.

Ross, M.(1992). Leadership synergy. In Webber, C.F., Bosetti, L., & Johnson, F.T. (Eds). Trends in Educational Leadership (pp. 3 - 13). Calgary: The University of Calgary.

Ross, R. (1992). Dancing with a ghost: Exploring Indian reality. Markham, Ontario: Reed Books.

(This text was recommended by Dr. Tom Gougeon during a M.Ed. course entitled, Social Dynamics of Rural Education.)

This Canadian perspective is an attempt to come to an understanding of the differences between two cultures: Native and non-Native. Ross (1992) writes with honesty and openness. His work outlines some of the basic yet harmful misconceptions that non-Natives have about Natives. Ross worked for many years with the justice department in Northern Ontario and he writes from his observations of his time with Natives. His book is divided into two parts: 1) Excavating Traditional Reality, which describes the rules of traditional times including the ethics which are often misunderstood by non-Natives, and 2) Understanding the Present, which explores the need for Natives to reevaluate their culture in light of the demands of the modern times. This book is very influential and should be read by all non-Natives who are trying to come to terms with the Native experience. It's easy language and straightforward tone is welcomed. The text is not limited to First Nations connections and the ideas written are transferable to Inuit societies. The book can also be read as a non-fiction novel of growth as the author describes his learning and understanding over time. Although Ross (1992) writes from the perspective of the court, much of his content is able to be understood by those outside of the legal system. Those in the education system will relate to his need to understand the people who he is there to serve.It is not a manual on community development but it is a beginning in changining the way non-Native think about the Native experience.The book encourages us to come up with ways to build a nation which values both societies.

Rothman, J. (1995). Approaches to community intervention. Strategies of Community Intervention, Eds. Rothman, J., Erlich, J., & Tropman, J. Itasca, Illinois: F.E. Peacock Publishers.

Schugurensky,D.(No date). 1968: Paulo Freire publishes Pedagogy of the Oppressed. [Online]. Available: [15/01/00].

Sergiovanni, T. J. (1992). Why we should seek substitutes for leadership. Educational Leadership. 5 pp.41 - 45.

Sergiovanni, T.J. (1994). Organizations or communities? Changing the metaphor changes the theory. Educational Administration Quarterly, 30, (2), pp.214 - 226.

Smith, M.K. (1997). Paulo Freire. The informal education homepage. [Online]. Available: http// [15/01/00].

State of Alaska, Dept. of Health and Social Services. (1990). Pulling together. Division of Mental Health and Developmental Disabilities, Rural and Native Services.

Storey, G. (1997). The nuts ‘n’ bolts of career and program plan implementation guide. draft #2. (unpublished).

Suicide Prevention Training Programs (1998). Saving lives: Community development for Aboriginal people. Calgary, Alberta: Royal Canadian Mounted Police/ Community Suicide Prevention Program, Aboriginal Policing Branch.

Swisher, K. & Hoisch, M. (1992) Dropping out among American Indians and Alaska Natives: a review of studies. Journal of American Indian Education, 31, pp.3 -23.

Tannen, D. (1990). You just don’t understand: Men and women in conversation. New York: Ballentine Books.

(This text is required reading for the M.Ed. course Communications in Education.)

This book by Tannen (1990) is a wonderful way to explore communication patterns between men and women. The title says it all - despite all efforts, there are time when the sexes just can't understand one another. Tannen (1990) takes a critical yet comical look at the ways that stereotypes, misunderstanding, expectations and myth affect our communication with the opposite sex. According to Tannen (1990), "if we can sort out our differences based on conversational style, we will be in a better position of confront real conflicts of interest - and to find a shared language in which to negotiate them" (p. 18). This book is a good way to start exploring the roots of conversational style. The book includes chapters on: asymmetries of cross-purpose talk; rapport-talk versus report-talk; lecturing and listening; community and contest; dominance and control; cross talk across ages; and, opening lines of communication.

This is a valuable resource when trying to analyze communication differences that challenge relationships between people. Tannen (1990) does a good job of making both sexes feel comfortable with the issues discussed. At times, when the discussion paint males negatively, Tannen (1990) reminds readers of generalities used to make statements. The text would be useful for school staffs and other such groups who are working together. Also, gender differences are often at the root of disagreements between teachers and students. Older students may be interested in reading parts of the text in order to have a better grasp of the communication patterns in their relationships. The stories and analogies are relevant to an older crowd and they bring clarity to difficult concepts. The book does not discuss cultural differences at this point and this would be an important topic to discuss in further exploration.

Tompkins, J. (1998). Teaching in a cold and windy place: Change in an Inuit school. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

(This book was used in the M.Ed. course entitled, Leadership in Learning.)

This book by Joanne Tompkins is an enthographical research study of an Inuit community in the Canadian arctic. Tompkins (1998) writes from her experiences as a principal in a small school in Anurapaktuq (1987 - 1992). During her time, many positive changes occurred in the school and community which resulted in higher school attendance and increased school success. This book is one of the few resources that deals directly with the educational situation for Inuit in Canada. Tompkins (1998) demonstrates how good leadership can make a difference with respect to decreasing the rates of Inuit dropout. The writing in the book is easy to comprehend even for those who have never taught in an isolated Inuit community before. Tompkins (1998) tackles many issues which impact the educational success of Inuit. She writes about the misconceptions between the southern (Qallunaaq) teachers and the Inuit community. She discusses how high rates of teacher turnover (teachers leaving the community after two or three years) can impact on the image of the school. Tompkins emphasizes the importance of creating a caring community within the walls of the school. Her comments are valid and important for educators who are trying to make education better for Inuit students.

Even though her writing predates the transfer of power to Nunavut in April 1999, Tompkins (1998) is still able to bring light on difficult issues. Now that Nunavut Education is taking on the job of revamping the education system in the north, it is important that decision-makers be sure to tackle the issues about which Tompkins (1998) has written. Unfortunatly, Tompkins (1998) does not include quanitative research and it is often difficult to get goverment decision-makers to read a more narrative description of the situation. Her work may have been more influenctial had she included quantitative research within her book.

Wilson, P. (1991) . Trauma of Sioux high school students. Anthropology & Education Quarterly, 22 (4), pp.367 - 383.

Related readings

Boucher, M. L. Jr. (1998). Paulo Freire. [Online]. Available: [15/01/00].

Collins, Denis.(No date). Paulo Freire. [Online]. Available: [15/01/00].